Charlton Thompson, lawyer and Texas legislator, was born in 1809 in South Carolina. He moved to Coahuila and Texas in 1826 with other members of the Thompson family. He was a delegate from Matagorda to the Convention of 1833 at San Felipe. He moved to Natchitoches, Louisiana, in 1834 and practiced law. In early 1837 he returned to Texas and settled in San Augustine, where he acquired property. He owned the American Hotel, a municipal building, two rent houses, and ten or twelve lots. He married Sophia Lairy on August 1, 1837. On September 16 of that year Thompson became a first-degree member of the McFarlane Masonic Lodge in San Augustine. He was a member of the Second Congress of the Republic of Texas as a representative of San Augustine County. Thompson died in Houston in 1838 while attending Congress. At the time of his death he owned more than 39,000 acres of land.